Whoever takes over as Prime Minister in the Autumn will face a number of challenges. These largely focus on the backlash against 'experts' and a lack of expertise.

The UK civil service has faced substantial cuts over several years, especially at a senior levels. Teams of civil servants dealing with complex issues are often quite small. There is, therefore, a lack of experts to help unpick the relationship with EU and to deal with what could be complex renegotiations.

There are few people who really understand how Brussels works in the UK Government. Typically officials have always shied away from spending time in Brussels and it is not seen as an important part of career development as it is in other Member States. So the only people who know how Brussels works are the people in Brussels.

The fear of listening to experts, not least those from the Treasury, means that the UK's own case to the EU could be undermined. If the UK does not believe its own case then why should anyone else?